Firstly, I would remove all the $ from the content of the budget and just mention their presence in a transcriber’s note. Then, the only thing for which you have to use Nemeth Code is the expression and pair of parentheses after Cash Surplus.
Now let’s talk format. The first thing I’d want to try is keeping the related column layout by presenting the wide table across facing pages. Even though that might take three pairs of facing pages (with page turns before Fixed Expenses and Cash Surplus), retaining the related column layout would likely make it easiest for the braille user to discuss the budget with print-using peers and teacher.
Alternatively, I think finding a list format that allows you to reflect print’s organization, without separating labels from values, could serve you well. Maybe cell-5 headings for print’s bolded headings, 1-5 for the first column entries (labels/row headings), and 3-5 for Monthly and for Yearly?
Maybe you could share here the clear and easy-to-reference transcription you create?