# Lindy Walton

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• in reply to: worded fraction #38599
Lindy Walton
Moderator

This entire statement is a mathematical expression. Start with an opening Nemeth Code indicator and a space; end with a space and a Nemeth Code terminator. Embedded or displayed, you will need to start a new line with the comparison sign (equals) and also start a new line with the operation sign (diagonal fraction line).

Using the example in your post, fraction indicators are not used because the numerator and denominator are each printed on the baseline of writing and there is no difference in type size. The letter E in the numerator does not need an English-letter indicator because it is not followed by a space. (Even though it will end the braille line, it would not be followed by a space were it touching the fraction line.) All words will be uncontracted.

This simbraille uses a 40-cell line.

_% ,P(,E)
.K NUMBER OF OUTCOMES CORRESPONDING TO
THE EVENT ,E
_/TOTAL NUMBER OF EQUALLY LIKELY
OUTCOMES _:

• This reply was modified 5 months, 3 weeks ago by Lindy Walton.
• This reply was modified 5 months, 3 weeks ago by Lindy Walton.
in reply to: Underline in UEB with Nemeth #38545
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi Laurie. Your question certainly makes me pause. This has been a topic of debate for a long time. Here is my advice. The Nemeth Code tells us to disregard typeform if it is not mathematically significant. Section 34.b: "When any material, mathematical or literary, is printed in non-regular type that has no mathematical significance, the variant type form must not be represented in the transcription."

I would not underline "top 3%" in the braille transcription. If you feel the student will be missing a hint that the print readers get from the underlining, you can inform the reader by means of a transcriber's note that "top 3%" is underlined in print.

Hope this helps.

Lindy

in reply to: Graphing Calculator #38524
Lindy Walton
Moderator

James Williams has some answers and suggestions for you.

Section 6.2 of the Graphing Calculator Guidelines does say no spaces before or after the keystroke Y=, but the examples given on pages 16 and 20 are referring to actual graphing screens, not keystrokes. An example of the Y= keystroke can be found on pages 10 (print) and 11 (braille), as indicated by the post's author, and follows Section 6.2. More examples reinforcing Section 6.2 appear on pages 36 (print) and 40 (braille), pages 43 (print) and 44 (braille), and pages 56 (print) and 57 (braille).

As for keystrokes not shown in boxes, I would say to use the keystroke indicator since GCG 2.1 states "The keystroke may be shown in print text with brackets, a clear or shaded rectangular box, a clear rectangular box with rounded corners, etc." The "etc." leaves wiggle-room here. I would put a note on the TN page regarding how the keystrokes are presented in print. All keystrokes are transcribed within Nemeth switches (GCG 2.2).

In addition, I would offer a caveat to the transcriber regarding the context of the "keystroke," especially if all keystrokes and references to screens in general are fully-capped. From the example given, that last "STAT" might refer to the "STAT" screen and not necessarily a "STAT" key since the last keystroke used in the example was "ENTER." A reference to the "STAT" screen would follow GC 3 and be brailled as it would appear on the screen (double-capped and uncontracted), but not within switch indicators. Samples 1 and 9 show how to treat references to screens within surrounding text. Sample 12 specifically shows the "STAT PLOTS" menu as both a reference in surrounding text and as a screen.

Hope this helps! Let us know if you have further questions.

in reply to: Hypercomplex fraction #38520
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi, Susan.
The parentheses don't have an impact on the Nemeth Code's definition of a complex or hypercomplex fraction.

You have three fractions here.
--The first one (the anchor) is a simple fraction. The words in the numerator and the denominator will be uncontracted.
--The second fraction (the first link) is a complex fraction.
--The third fraction (the second link) contains the simple fraction "r over n".

The Nemeth Code defines "complex fraction" as follows. A complex fraction is one whose numerator, denominator, or both, contains at least one simple fraction.

It goes on to say that a fraction is not a complex fraction if the only simple fractions it contains are at the superscript or subscript level. That is not the case with your example.

There are no hypercomplex fractions in the expression. To be a hypercomplex fraction, the numerator, denominator, or both, must contain at least one complex fraction.

The complex fraction indicators and fraction line start with one dot 6.

Opening Complex Fraction Indicator (6, 1456)

Horizontal Complex Fraction Lind (6, 34)

Closing Complex Fraction Indicator (6, 3456)

--Lindy

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Lindy Walton
Moderator

Sorry for the delay. We feel that Nemeth symbols should be used, and that the spacing should follow print. I can see how there are times the transcription will be ambiguous. Those cases may benefit from a transcriber's note explaining. Are you disregarding the capitals? If so, the commas will be unlikely to be misread.

Please send examples of formulae that you find to be difficult. It would be interesting to see how they look in braille.

Lindy

in reply to: Letter Permutations in Nemeth #38518
Lindy Walton
Moderator

What an interesting question!

My *opinion* is that the word BANANA in the sentence can be in UEB, but the permutations should be in Nemeth. Each letter will be individually capitalized in the permutations. If the UEB word contained contractions, you would not use them.

This brings up a fond memory of Dr. Nemeth's sense of humor when he suggested that the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) change its name to the Braille and Nemeth Authority of North America (BANANA).

Lindy

in reply to: Chemistry Structures and Statements in a Graph #38446
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi Beth.
The BANA Chemistry committee has discussed the encircled plus and minus at length and is suggesting that we implement two shorter symbols when the these symbols appear in a spatial diagram. These new symbols have not been published yet, but I see no reason why you can't use them as long as you state in a TN what they are.

For the encircled plus, use "ed" "c" "+" (1246, 14, 346) which is the shape symbol for "circle" followed by a plus sign.
For the encircled minus, use "ed" "c" "-" (1246, 14, 36) which is the shape symbol for "circle" followed by a minus sign.
These symbols are to be used only in the context of a spatial diagram when the plus or minus sign stands alone.

\$c+     \$c-

You can move the detached charge symbols in order to accommodate the surrounding material in the spatial diagram, as long as the symbol is close to the letter to which it applies.

Regarding the graph, keying the items is a good idea. Yes, upper-cell numbers are used in a key. I suggest not keying the bottom two formulas though, because they will fit without interfering with the graph line.

"Deprotonation" and "Reaction Progress" will need to be uncontracted. If that doesn't leave you with enough room for the arrows on that line, you can divide "Deprotonation" (deproto -nation). According to Tactile Graphics guidelines, when a label needs to be split between two braille lines, the runover should be left justified, not indented.

Please let me know if you have further questions.

Lindy

Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi. We are discussing your question and will provide a response soon.

in reply to: Chemistry Questions #38367
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi Beth.

Q#1: About those labels As, Bp, Bs, Cp, Cs, Dp, and Ds. Yes, a 2-letter technical term is to be transcribed in Nemeth. You will use a dot 6 comma since these are not abbreviations.

I would not retain the bold here because the typeform has no meaning other than to catch the attention of the print reader (as far as I can tell. Is there some indication in the text that gives importance to the bold being used?) We are wisely advised to disregard typeform when all instances of the same item are in the same typeform, and/or when the typeform has no technical meaning. Likewise for the bold applied to letters s and p in s = supernatant; p = pellet. The bold is just eye candy here, as far as I can tell. (If you *were to retain boldface for these 2-letter labels, you would treat them as two bold letters, not one bold word.)

To answer your question about indicators, if you were to use the 3-cell Nemeth typeform indicators right next to a code switch indicator, a space is not required between them. The space required before the opening switch does double-duty for the space required before the typeform indicator. Same goes for the terminators.

I want you to know that the upcoming much-anticipated Nemeth Code will have much clearer rules and examples of the use of typeform indicators inside the switches. Likewise, the upcoming much-anticipated Nemeth Code lesson book will reflect the new rules.

Q#2:
Regarding "4,000 x g" etc. OH MY GOODNESS. A little googling brought up the fact that "g" is indeed a unit of measure here (in the context of physics, centrifugal force, and such). It doesn't mean "grams" in this case, but for our purposes just knowing it is a unit of measure helps us know what to do with it. (Space before, ELI needed.) But what about that "x"? We encounter a similar dilemma in "4x6" where the x doesn't really mean "multiply".

On this topic, UEB 3.9.1, Crosses, is interesting to read. Yes, you need to determine the meaning of the "cross" sign. UEB says that if the cross is used to show dimensions or degree of magnification, to use the multiplication sign. Okay, then in Nemeth-with-UEB that is our cue to switch to Nemeth because we don't use the UEB multiplication cross in a Nemeth transcription.

So ... put "4,000 x g" all in Nemeth, spacing only before the unit "g". I notice that the print document is inconsistent with their spacing (not an uncommon thing). As long as you are consistent with your intentional treatment of these items, your reader will not stumble.

Here is the link to the meaning of "g", if you're curious: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What-is-the-difference-between-the-G-and-the-RPM-in-Centrifugae-Machine-Is-it-same-or-what-Does-it-have-any-specific-formula-for-conversion

Q#3:
Regarding "1x Laemmli" and "4x Laemmli" etc., yes, this refers to a concentration of a solution. So you need to apply the same logic to this as mentioned in Q#2. Even though 4x is not "math" here, the cross sign requires a switch to Nemeth.

Q#4:
Yes, I would assume SDS (on the last line) is an abbreviation. Without any context to rely upon, I would use UEB for SDS, using the capitalized word indicator.

Q#5:
When you are doing worksheets, it can be very helpful to obtain a braille copy of the textbook (if available!) or contact the transcriber (if known!) so you can be consistent with what they did.

About Handout-9-Table1.jpg: In the context of a table, you can either put just (x g) in Nemeth and switch to NC after the column separation lines, or you can do the entire table in Nemeth, which I recommend. See attached brf file.

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#38352
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi Veeah.

The division of expression guidelines are hard to understand, and frankly are not very clear in the code because of the wide variation in issues we face with long expressions.
Over the years, we all got a little carried away trying to make sense of the priority list outlined in the code book.

In retrospect, the statement in Lesson 14 that says "If an expression must be divided at a site lower on the priority list, a new line is required at each sign which occurs higher on the list" is simply not practical. You'll be happy to hear that this topic will be easier to comprehend in the updated lesson material and code book, due out some time in 2022. In the meantime...

Honestly, the concept is simple and if we step back a bit, usually we can come up with a clear transcription.

In a long linked expression, the first thing to keep in mind is to begin each link on a new line. There are two links in your example. A new line begins with each of those links, beginning with the equals sign. When the anchor is so small (in this case, "a"), it may seem strange to leave it all alone on a line by itself, but by starting each link on a new line, the structure of the equation is not lost.

The issue now is what to do with the long fraction. Yes, divide before the fraction line, to keep the numerator distinct from the denominator. A numeric indicator is not needed for the "1" in the denominator because it is not preceded by a space.

Now what to do with the factor "9.81 m/s^2"? Since no operation sign is present, you don't need to begin a new line. It's okay if you do, for clarity, but it's not required. If you do begin a new line with "9.81 m/s^2" then you need a numeric indicator before the 9 because it is the first symbol on the line. On the other hand, if you keep "9.81 m/s^2" unspaced from the closing fraction indicator on the previous line, the numeric indicator is not needed.

One correction needed: Delete the space between the plus symbol and "2" in the numerator.

I love your questions. Thank you for sharing this with everyone on the forum.

Lindy

in reply to: Stress Marks Inside Nemeth #38311
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Nate, I didn't mean to leave your question unanswered. I still stand by my original suggestion, using UEB to show the diacritics and Nemeth only for the math symbols (equals sign in this case).

The examples from earlier posts that you found are good to compare the decision-making process regarding which code to use.

1. In the math word problem example from May 2019, (18 kazoos ...), a Spanish eñe occurs in the word piñata. A dot 4 was suggested here, which is a remnant of EBAE but surely works well in this new context and I see no reason not to fall back on this technique. A transcriber's note would explain this use of the dot 4 since Nemeth Code does not define this dot as an accent.

2. In the second example you pulled from July 2021 (geocentric), the use of math symbols in these pronunciations does not in itself make this a "math statement". However, we do not use UEB math symbols in a Nemeth transcription. Since the pronunciation method in this book example uses italics to show stress, transcribing them in Nemeth Code is not a problem to transcribe or to read. Since (46) is more commonly used in math as the Greek-letter indicator, and since (6, 3) is more commonly used as the single-word switch indicator, it might be helpful to mention in a transcriber's note that, within the pronunciations, (46) indicates an italicized word and (6, 3) terminates the italic typeform within an unspaced word.

3. The second example (March 30, 2021) is a nice clear example of using words in a math problem, using Nemeth throughout.

4. Regarding your project, the pronunciation markings provide important information concerning the topic at hand, which is how to pronounce a word. As with example 2, above, the use of math symbols in these pronunciations does not in itself make this a "math statement". However, Nemeth does not have symbols for diacritics. Transcribing diacritics and stress marks is covered thoroughly in UEB, Section 4 and in Braille Formats, Section 20.

I hope this clarifies the decisions made in these four distinctly different scenarios.

Lindy

in reply to: Special font #38272
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Rule V of the 1972 Nemeth Code does not have a braille symbol assigned to this "double struck" font. You may use one of the font attributes not used elsewhere in your document, and explain the substitution in a transcriber's note. Usually the script font is the one that transcribers choose to use. So, yes, go ahead and use that indicator (dot 4) before the English-letter indicator and capital indicator for each of these letters. Your transcriber's note can say something like "Double-struck letters are denoted with a dot 4 before the letter indicator."

Lindy

in reply to: Cancellation – Numerator doesn’t fit #38169
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi Carmen. Yes, you absolutely *can make a numerator two lines in a spatial fraction. Follow the guidelines for dividing any long math expression to decide where to divide the numerator. Send an image if you would like some help with that.

Lindy

in reply to: Freestanding numbers #38159
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Hi Fred. Thank you for your questions, and for sending us to the Provisional Guidance document for answers.

Yes, "freestanding" includes numbers or letters with punctuation. The example on page 2 of the Guidance shows a UEB number 3 and a UEB letter n with a following period. It is not really necessary to include this information in a transcriber's note, unless your agency or a teacher has asked for it.

I see you are using a square (box) symbol for the scoring numbers. (I assume there is a little box to the left of each slash? It is not showing up in the scan image.) I suggest using UEB there as well, transcribing an underscore instead of a box.

Lindy

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in reply to: Omit Write-on Lines after Expressions? #38071
Lindy Walton
Moderator

Your formatting looks fine. The switch indicators are in a good place. I would suggest numbering the braille pages (in the lower right-hand corner).

I see one little error: You need to correct the numeral 4 in #21.