1) Braille Formats does not apply in the case of FOREIGN freestanding letters. See the Interim Manual for Foreign Language Braille Transcription, Section 3.4. These are the current foreign language rules now in effect. New BANA foreign language guidelines have not yet been approved.
2) The Interim Manual specifies that there is a space before and after the slash regardless of print. However, it is also acceptable to space the slash as it is generally done, which is to follow print. In this case, it's your choice. Be sure to be consistent with spacing or not spacing the slash. In you example the slash is used to designate the translation of those individual words. Ignore the italics and the bold. The slash indicates the language shift and the print emphasis is ignored.
3) That is NOT a mathematical greater than sign. Those are right pointing arrowheads and they indicate that the words are derived from the previous form. This is a common notation in foreign language material. See Appendix G Symbols in Braille Formats. Scroll down to Arrows. It's the second to last item in that chart. Insert a space before and after the arrowhead. Do not confuse this with an arrow. This is an arrowHEAD.
4) I would suggest that you divided the table into vertical sections to keep the original table format. The method for dividing tables is given in Braille Formats.
5) See 18.3.9 in Braille Formats and the accompanying example.
6) The superscript is a foreign abbreviation for ordinal numbers as is often done in English for lst, 2nd, 3rd with the st, nd, and rd in superscript position. See The Interim Manual See 6.1. It specifically gives the procedure for this.