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Thank you for your questions!
Yes, in a Cartesian graph, the plotted line is the most distinct, and the grid lines are the least distinct. GSTG 220.127.116.11 provides advice for all linear features of a Cartesian graph. See 18.104.22.168 and Appendix F if you have more than one plotted line on a graph.
(GSTG is the Guidlines and Standards for Tactile Graphics. You will find the most recent version on the BANA website at the following URL: https://www.brailleauthority.org/tg/web-manual/index.html)
Regarding the thickness of lines in a Cartesian graph, GSTG Appendix F provides some examples. However, these suggestions are not specific to images made on swell paper.
Our experts recommend the following for use with swell paper:
Background grid: 1pt dashed line
X- and Y-axis lines: 1.5pt solid line
Plotted line: 3pt solid line
Our experts also suggest that you leave white space around the plotted line so the person reading the graph is able to feel the plotted line clearly.
Regarding the use of colors on swell paper, our experts recommend that you use only black lines.
If you have large solid areas of color in the print graph, don't try to go with solid black. It is best to use a patterned texture as shown in GSTG Appendix E.
If a print graphic makes use of multiple colors, our experts also want to emphasize that you make sure the textures used are distinguishable from each other. Appendix E in GSTG provides guidelines on what textures can be safely used in a single tactile graphic.