Continuing with small caps and Transcriber-defined indicators

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    <h5>My question was previously answered by Julie Sumwalt on May 8, 2019 (#33470).</h5>
    <h5>I'm  again referring to the example on UEB, page 99. Ms. Sumwalt explained the use of Trans. Def. Ind. with the sentence     The newspaper headline was EARTHQUAKE KILLS THOUSANDS.  The E, K, and T are larger than the rest of the small caps. I understand (now) that the indicators were used to distinguish the heading "from the  surrounding text."</h5>
    But when that phrase is used as a heading?  I know that a heading's location is enough. (Braille Formats 5.1.6) Then I think about the sentence from 5.2.1   "c. Uppercase is not a font attribute. Follow print for capitalization." Would I add the Trans.-Def. Ind. for the larger first letters or just all caps?

    The question before mine in the posts, ((#22844) which refers to Lesson 15, Drill 36, #s 4 and 11. It was answered by claurent. Reading her answer, would you please explain what she means when she asks/answers if "emphasis indicators are used on the titles/names? If that is the case, then both emphasis and the capital word/passage indicators are not required." The drill answers show BOTH emphasis indicators AND cap indicators on all words with small caps--titles and names. I'm completely lost.

    Another question:  Do we define the Trans.-Def. Ind. as: Larger first letter with small caps?

    Last question (until I read the next page in Braille Formats) Reading 5.2.1 about small caps. I have an attribute in small caps:     SANSKRIT PROVERB     I think I should use the Trans.-Def. Ind. but then again, maybe the small caps aren't required, and I can just cap the words.

    Thank you very much for your help. None of my million questions are for a manuscript. Most are from discussions with other transcribers when we cannot agree. This question is for a book I'm transcribing.

    Candace Richardson



    We are sorry for the delay in responding.  What needs to be determined is whether or not the text is being emphasized by using the small caps or not.  If, in your example above, Earthquake Kills Thousands is in small caps and is also a heading, the small caps if the emphasis that can be omitted...leaving the initial caps required as capitalization.  It feels to me (though I may be wrong) that you are seeing small caps as capitalization rather than emphasis.  The transcriber determines which emphasis to retain and which is not necessary.  If something is NOT emphasis, then caps comes into play (in your example of SANSKIT PROVERB double caps should be used but no transcriber-defined indicator).  If something IS emphasis, use the transcriber-defined typeform and then consider what needs caps - maybe nothing!  If I had a sentence

    My dog is black and brown and full of fun.

    with the words "black and brown" in small caps, a transcriber-defined typeform would be used and no caps at all.  On the Special Symbols page, the symbol would be listed followed by the description "small cap passage".  A terminator would also be required.

    Does that help?



    Thank you for answering my million questions. I wish we could use an indicator (symbol, word, and passage) strictly for small caps--vs. a subjective opinion. I understand your answer but if we used a small cap indicator, there would be no need to ascertain "which emphasis to retain and which is not necessary." It seems as though that is undermining the decision of the print copy editor who wanted to show the text in small caps, period.

    Looking through the UEB symbols list, I'm amazed at the effort to show the braille reader as much as possible of the print copy. For example, there are indicators for the size and direction of arrows. Yet for as something as common as small caps, there is no simple indicator.


    Candace Richardson

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