Electronic Address: contraction and typeform

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    Fred Van Ackeren


    In the following address there is an "ea" contraction following a capital termination



    Normally the "ea" contraction is used in Health but when following the caps termination it can be read as "lord." Should I  use the contraction?

    Also, when addresses are underlined in print are they underlined in Braille? When UEB was being introduced I saw in a publication from some authority that underlining was to be omitted unless needed for distinction.



    Dan Gergen

    Hello Fred,

    Thank you for your questions. You are correct that the "ea" lower groupsign (dot 2) is used in "health." (In your SimBraille example, you used dot 5 which would translate as the initial-letter contraction "lord" but "ea" should be dot 2.)

    If you use the capitals terminator after the "H" you are not able to use the lower groupsign "ea" when the letters it represents are preceded or followed by a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator. [UEB §10.6.6]

    The letter-sequence "CAHealthWellness," is a compound word. A medial capital letter indicator could be used before "H" as was used for the "W". The capitals terminator would not be needed since the single capital indicator terminates capitalized word mode and would permit the use of the "ea" lower sign as well as saving space. [UEB §10.12.12 & UEB §8.4.2]



    UEB §9.1.3 shows an example of two underlined hyperlinks both of which can be activated in the electronic print file: "Go to <u>http://www.iceb.org </u>to learn about <u>UEB rules and examples</u>." The first is considered a print enhancement which need not be shown in braille since the text is sufficient to indicate a hyperlink. The second marks embedded text and unless shown as such the braille reader is unaware of the presence of the link so underlined may be retained.

    I hope we were able to help answer your questions.

    Fred Van Ackeren

    Hi Dan,

    Thanks for the info, I should have thought of that simple work-thru; and thanks for spotting the dot error, I thought that looked strange but it was late and I was tired.

    I might add that there are many electronic addresses in this publication but not all are underlined and there is no hyper-link text. I take these as enhancements to call the sighted reader's attention to them. If I find any hyper-links I'll retain the underlining for distinction and make an entry on the TN page.


    Dan Gergen

    Well  Fred, UEB §9.1.3 does say that when it cannot be determined whether or not a change of typeform is significant, indicate the change.

    Thanks again and good luck.

    Kimberly Martin


    Hi Dan, I have attached a sample of a web address, can you please advise if the space at the end of the line after the continuation indicator counts and terminates grade one and numberic mode.

    5.6.2 When grade 1 mode is set by the numeric indicator it is terminated by a space, hyphen, dash or grade 1 terminator.


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    Dan Gergen

    Hello Kim,

    In your example, the three lines that end with a line continuation indicator (dot 5) leave several cells empty at the end of the lines. These blank cells are not spaces that would terminate grade 1 mode that was set by the last numeric indicator. The line continuation indicator tells the reader that the electronic address continues on the next line because the symbols-sequence is too long for the line.

    As such, with on the next line is in grade 1 mode that was set by the last numeric indicator and may not be contracted unless you terminate grade 1 mode after the previous numeric sequence. Whether you terminate grade 1 or spell-out with, you will not save space, but in either case, the four contractions that follow the first hyphen in the remaining symbols-sequnce may be used.

    You may want to refer to UEB §5.9.1 to decide if you want to  use a grade 1 terminator to "present words in their familiar contracted form," or spell it out to "minimize the number of indicators."

    I hope this helps. Please let us know if you have any other questions or comments.

    Dan Gergen

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