Conferring with Betty was all the help I needed to clarify the Nemeth requirements and the unusual way in which the print is presented. In French de, la, or le is a separate word spaced away from the folowing word. However, when the following word begins with a vowel, the e (or a) is dropped, an apostrophe is used in its place and and l' (or d') become part of the following word and is unspaced, as in this case of l'axe and d’échelle.
Print gives us a partially boldfaced word in l'axe and l’échelle. In Nemeth the boldface indicator is an open and close 3-cell indicator that is spaced away from the affected word. The recommendation is to space the l' away from the opening boldface indicator.
[braille]l' ,'_ axe _,'
In the case of d’«Échelle where there is an intervening open quote between the d' and the following word, the recommendation here is also to space the d' away from the following word to accommodate the open quote, which must be preceded by a space.