Table of Contents and Small Caps

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    I am lost in the Twilight Zone of Small Caps and Distinction.

    Table of Contents example on page 19-17.          Then the brailled example on page 19-18.

    FOREWORD (small caps)                                   .Foreword

    PREFACE (small caps)                                        .Preface

    The directions say to follow print.

    The example on page 98, Section 9.6.1 of the UEB Rules shows PT109 (small caps) as ..PT109.

    The following section 9.6.2 describes using small caps for emphasis or distinction and uses a Transcriber-Defined typeform indicator. "When the typeform change is significant ..."

    The brailled Table of Contents on page 19-18 doesn't use any of these examples--didn't follow print, cap the whole word, or use a typeform indicator. NO emphasis at all. Not even capping the whole word?

    Can you tell me what rule was used? I've read a post from this site dated Aug.17, 2015 (#22824) about setting the braille off if it needs emphasis or distinction. It doesn't seem to need any emphasis or distinction but ...

    There's another post with a question exactly like mine dated May 11, 2010 (#10283) about small caps in a table of contents. Unfortunately, this question was never answered.

    Another question. Section 19.2b, page 19-17 of the Lessons. Volume breaks. The directions say to continue the chapter heading with (contd.). Shouldn't this be enclosed in TNs as words such as Volume and The End are enclosed?

    Thank you very much for your help. This site is so helpful.

    Candace Richardson


    Julie Sumwalt

    Hi Candace,

    We are to follow print for capitalization, yes. But the use of small caps is not capitalization. Capitals may be used within small caps, but small caps themselves are not capitals.

    Small caps need to be shown where distinction or emphasis is required for the understanding of the text. “Foreword”, etc., are already set apart with a blank line and indention. Further distinction is unnecessary. Nor do these entries need to be emphasized in any way. Therefore, the identification of small caps is not shown. Because of all this, Braille Formats 2016 2.10.8 says to use title case for small caps in a table of contents.

    The example of PT109 in UEB 9.6.1 is showing an abbreviation in small caps. As explained in that text, abbreviations in small caps are generally transcribed with capital indicators. The following example in UEB 9.6.2 is showing an example where distinction is necessary. The heading must be distinguished from the surrounding text. Once it’s decided that distinction or emphasis must be shown, THEN the transcriber should follow print. Italics, boldface, underlining, or script indicators are not options here because print did not use those typeforms. A transcriber-defined typeform indicator must be utilized.

    The forum post from 2010 was pre-UEB and should not be referenced. Also, be careful about treating the lesson manual as a rule book. While it has many useful examples and explanations, it is not a definitive source for transcription. Do follow it for your manuscript submission, however.

    “(cont.)” in the table of contents does not need to be in transcriber’s note indicators because the writers of Braille Formats 2016 decided that the existing parentheses were sufficient. Adding TN indicators would mean five cells of indicators on either side of the abbreviation. See BF2016 2.10.10.

    Braille on,



    Hello Julie,


    Thank you for explaining the use of small caps as well answering  the (cont.) question.

    Hope you either write the next Lesson manual or at least have input. The explanations of concepts are sometimes so hard to understand and apply.

    Candace Richardson

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