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  • in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37547
    Donald Winiecki


    The BANA guidelines for tactile graphics are currently in the final approval phase. We don't have special knowledge of their contents. BANA, NBA, and other organizations will actively announce those revised guidelines when they are available.

    In the meantime, we can share the following:

    The NBA training materials for TGs include the following examples as appropriate for the mat plan method. (Note that these examples from NBA training materials use pre-UEB braille.)

    The attached figure 1 shows print graphics that would be rendered as mat plan tactiles.

    The attached figure 2 displays how one would use the mat plan in a tactile image of the graphic shown.

    The attached figure 3 shows a block figure that should be produced as a tactile using the layering method. The layering method is used in this case because there is empty space under cubes in the top layer.

    The attached figure 4 shows how the layering method would be used to produce a tactile graphic of the block object shown in figure 3. Notice how shading is used to signify the blocks, and no shading is used to signify where there are no blocks in each layer.

    We hope this answers all of your questions for now!

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    in reply to: Help! (with wide labels on a graph) #37539
    Donald Winiecki

    The maths symbols in the graph should be included on the SPECIAL SYMBOLS PAGE.

    From what is provided in this thread, and considering the level of maths involved, we would expect the students to be familiar with those symbols. However, a decision on whether or not to include a standard TN prior to this graph with the special maths symbols could be made at the agency-level and/or in consultation with curriculum specialists.

    in reply to: Help! (with wide labels on a graph) #37537
    Donald Winiecki

    Hi Laurie,

    With this particular TG we're actually trying to accomplish two things.

    First, we want to stay within the guidelines. Ensuring that our work is consistent with the guidelines means that students and instructors alike will have materials that easily fit into their lessons, lesson planning, and testing processes.

    Second, we have to make sure the TGs do not introduced unusual conditions on students or instructors, when learning and teaching the concepts. As indicated in our previous response, because of the way sine waves are normally displayed (that is, horizontally) and the way the the question is asked, the student and instructor will expect to have values plotted above and below the horizontal X-axis rather than to the left and right of a vertically-oriented X-axis.

    In this case, we recommend omitting every other label and/or stair-stepping the labels for the x-axis. This is consistent with the 4th bullet in GSTG

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37530
    Donald Winiecki

    You're asking a very good question (again)!

    We on the TG Skills Group are comparing notes on your question and we will get back with you as soon as we can.

    in reply to: Help! (with wide labels on a graph) #37518
    Donald Winiecki

    Hi Laurie!

    You were on the right track!

    According to GSTG allowable to omit alternate labels while keeping the coordinate marker (, 4th bullet). This can help by compressing the length of the line. However, after reviewing the print diagram to be rendered as a TG it isn't clear what values will have to be plotted on the graph. With this in mind, depending on the need to plot values from the referenced unit circle, it may be preferable to retain all of the labels.

    If it is impossible to fit the graph any other way, you can change the horizontal format to a vertical format in order to accommodate a long line without the need for runovers (6th bullet). There are other formatting requirements as indicated below.

    Here is the full text of GSTG (print page 6-21). I have bolded the 4th and 6th bullets to make them easier to identify. Please note that the bulleted items are listed in a hierarachy, with the most preferable option at the top of the list.

    Our experts note that even though GSTG allows for a rotation of the graph, the problem being asked of the student is to graph an f(x) vs x relationship. This could be confusing if the graph were actually rotated.

    __________________________________________________________________________ Hierarchy for accommodating a long number line without runovers should consider:

      <li style="list-style-type: none;">
    • starting the number line at the margin. If accompanied by an exercise number, the exercise number can be left on one line, and the number line can be moved down to a new line. A blank line is inserted between the exercise number and the number line.
    • shortening the length of the line segments between integers.
    • omitting unused portions of the line.
    • omitting alternate labels while keeping the coordinate marker.
    • moving a long label away from the number line by placing it below the line reserved for ordinary labels and connecting it to its coordinate marker with a lead line.
    • changing the horizontal form to vertical. Rotating a number line will produce a vertical line that may be thought of as comparable to the y-axis of a Cartesian graph; therefore, the number line should be transcribed with the smallest number at the bottom of the page and increasing upward. The tick marks should straddle the axis line, 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) on either side of the axis line. Dots 25 of the value are aligned with the tick mark.


    Please let us know if this solves your puzzle!

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37502
    Donald Winiecki

    The "mat plan" and "layering method" described in GSTG 6.15 and 6.16 are used to help learners work up to the concept of volume by counting blocks inscribed on a flat surface. Once students understand that they can slice an object into layers and determine area by counting those blocks, they have made a step toward understanding volume.

    And -- jumping many years ahead -- the same idea of slicing an object into pieces, determining the approximate area of each slice, and then adding all those slices together, will come in handy when students encounter integral calculus!

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37500
    Donald Winiecki

    I think we're homing in on some important details!

    Section 6.15 of GSTG focuses on orthographic drawings (the common multi-part drawing including separate front, side, and top views of an object), rather than pictorial drawings. Here is an example of a pictorial/3D drawing and an orthographic drawing of the same object:

    The advice provided in our earlier responses is based on our determination that the instruction and exercises in pages you provided for us, focus on teaching and helping learners to use the concept of depth. As implied in GSTG 2.10, if the concept of depth is necessary, then a 3D view is desirable.

    Are we closer now to answering all of your design questions? 🙂


    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37498
    Donald Winiecki

    Taylor, please tell us what parts of GSTG you are referencing.

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37495
    Donald Winiecki


    We want to be cautious and indicate that our response was specific to the examples we reviewed. Since we do not have the entire textbook, we can only advise on the specific graphics in question. Each instance should be reviewed and formatted according the context. Consistency throughout a transcription should always be a priority because that allows the readers to focus more on the content than the way the content is expressed.

    GSTG 3.3 discusses the use of a planning sheet and recommends documenting the planning process. Listing the content, texture, symbols and labels helps track pertinent information and provide consistency in graphics presented throughout the transcription. As far as going back through the whole book, that would be up to the transcriber and tactile artist.

    Drawing from the substantial experience with TGs and transcription on this Skills Group committee, we can elaborate on this to say that when it comes to tactile graphics, 3D shapes have always been one of the most challenging types of figures to render.

    There have been many different innovations for rendering different kinds of images in tactile forms.

    Among these innovations, a few stand out:

    1. Using a texture to identify a particular side in isometric and oblique drawing of 3D shapes. This first started being used about 15-20 years ago, and was typically used to identify the top, not front, of an object.
    2. Use of engraving lines for edges that are going inward or receding in a figure, and use the embossed lines for edges that are going outward or "coming out of" the page.

    However, these are only attempts to use tactile features to communicate the shape of an object. None has proven to be universally helpful for all tactile readers. That said, we could expect that a reader who has been taught to understand these methods would benefit when receiving materials using the same tactile techniques consistently in the future. However, the opinions and feedback of proofreaders may not always provide the best benefit for all (and especially new) tactile readers.

    Our best service to tactile readers is to consistently apply guidelines as shown in GSTG and related references. That way, we can be assured to provide content in a form that will likely be encountered in the future, even if materials are produced by someone else.

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37486
    Donald Winiecki


    After reviewing the examples, our experts note that all of the graphic objects shown in the examples provided are 3-D shapes. This quality should be retained and they should be rendered as TGs to match what is in print. For question 9, we recommend not to include the auxiliary front view and to remove the tactile shading.

    We also note that if the front view were to be included, it should be drawn as if the viewer were seeing it encountering it straight on. That is, it would not be angled.

    GSTG guidelines to support this advice:

    • 2.8 A print graphic may be simplified as long as the original intent is not compromised.
    • 2.10 If the concept of depth is not required, a 3-dimensional view should be changed to a 2-dimensional view.
    • Shading should be used sparingly and only if required for the understanding of the concept.

    With respect to GSTG 2.10, our experts note that based on additional pages of the textbook provided here, the concept of volume is being taught. With this, the 3-dimensional view should be kept.

    Finally, we want to note that this advice applies to the specific images you have asked about. We cannot say that this advice should apply to all images in the textbook.

    We hope this answers all of your questions! Please let us know.

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37485
    Donald Winiecki

    Thank you for your quick response to our questions! We'll be back soon.

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37478
    Donald Winiecki

    That helps Taylor!

    If it's not an imposition, is it possible that you could post the textbook pages that relate to this drawing and the activity of which it is a part? That would provide our experts with a bit more information to formulate a response to your question.

    in reply to: Orthographic graphics with side labels in print #37475
    Donald Winiecki

    Taylor, thank you for the question!

    When it comes to 3D objects, BANA guidelines should be applied depending on the intended use for a drawing. Can you provide us with details on how the tactile graphic will be used by a student in class activities?

    in reply to: Number lines #37350
    Donald Winiecki

    Dy-no-mite! (Wait. Does that make me sound old?)

    Glad to help.

    in reply to: Number lines #37341
    Donald Winiecki

    Laurie and Lindy,

    Thank you for the questions! Number Lines and Cartesian Coordinates are critical components of any STEM content and we wanted to make sure we had all the details covered. There are many intersecting rules and guidelines to consider and we hope the following addresses all of your needs. Please also see the attached document for an example.

    • A raised line drawing would be preferable if the readers' familiarity with braille graphics is unknown and required if the readers are K-3.
    • Alignment of numbers is with the first row of the digit rather than numeric symbol (GSTG
    • Yes, the tics should be extended 1/4" (6mm) above and below the line itself if using a raised line drawing (GSTG, section
    • Yes, put relevant symbols on SPECIAL SYMBOLS page per "Guidance for Transcription Using the Nemeth Code within UEB Contexts" item #17.
    • However, following GSTG (second bullet) If number lines appear infrequently, the braille number line symbols should be inserted as a transcriber’s note. So, if this is the only place that a number line occurs, place the symbols in a TN immediately preceding the graphic.

    Let us know if this answers all of your questions!

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Viewing 15 posts - 1 through 15 (of 42 total)