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The consensus from the committee is in!
Braille Formats 2016 is our source for this formatting issue. In an exercise format of 1-5, 3-5, we should format displayed math expressions in 7-9 with space before and after, per BF2016 §10.7.
Our understanding is that a format of 7-9 allows the braille user to most easily pinpoint the beginning of the expression (or beginning of each expression if there were more than one).
🤓 Further citation: The second paragraph under 3. General format (GTM 1.4.1) in BANA's Provisional Guidance on Transcribing Mathematics in UEB says,
Follow Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2016 for the format of displayed literary text except for paragraph format, which is never blocked. For displayed mathematical expressions, use blank lines preceding and following; and indent 2 cells from the runover position of the material to which they apply.
Please let us know if you need something more or different!
Well, first, please let me give you the annoyingly diplomatic answer: If you are consistent, either format is likely to work for the student.
I personally format that kind of thing as displayed material. But let me confer with our NBA colleagues and get back to you with a more supported answer.
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Thank you for the question, Josh.
The preferred method for transcribing a number with a bar over it is to use the symbol for "bar over previous item" given in Guidelines for Technical Material section 12 and to use braille grouping indicators where necessary to designate the "item" to which that bar over applies.
I would transcribe the print you shared ["one-point-nine, division sign, two-point-four, equals, zero-point-seven-nine-one-six with a bar over the six"] as shown below:
#a4i"/#b4d "7 #j4gia<#f>:
More information and explanation of transcribing this kind of recurring decimal notation is included in our short webinar "Decimals, Including Repeating Decimals," which is in the archive of UEB Technical Material webinars.
For fun, attached are pictures of the print and braille we're talking about as well as a BRF of the braille.
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Thank you for sharing your questions.
I compliment you on finding in NBA's archive of webinars an answer to your continuation indicator question. I trust you found a reference to the third paragraph under #4 in BANA's Provisional Guidance on Transcribing Mathematics in UEB, which says,
If you make reasonable divisions following the above guidance, the dot 5 continuation indicator mentioned in GTM 1.4 will not often be needed; the meaning or format should make it clear enough that the expression on the new line is a continuation of that on the previous line, e.g. it will typically start with a comparison or operation sign.
As for your superscript question, the y that follows a superscript 2 is not in the superscript position because the "2" is the "item" that the superscript indicator affects. In other words, according to #8 in GTM 7.1, the effect of the superscript indicator expires after the number.
Please let us know if you need anything more or different.
Thank you for the question.
Guidelines for Technical Material does not give us firm instruction about where to place signs of operation in a spatial arrangement.
Consistency is key to setting the braille user up for success.
For what it is worth, members of this committee tend to place operation symbols one cell to the left of the leftmost number *in the calculation that the operation sign is part of.*
Thank you for the question, Cynthia.
In short, yes.
If you're wondering whether the capital passage is a tool available for use in a UEB Math/Science transcription, then please consider that UEB technical is an extension of UEB in general (rather than being a separate code). This means all UEB indicators may be used in technical material rendered in UEB.
To underscore this, use of the capitals indicator is mentioned and demonstrated in the chemistry portion of the current UEB technical document (Guidelines for Technical Material 16.2).
If you're wondering whether the braille would be accurate with the capital passage used, then the answer is also "yes." That is, the print you have is "'the edges of this polygon are segments' AB-with-bar-over, BC-with-bar-over, CD-with-bar-over, DE-with-bar-over, and EA-with-bar-over." and it would be accurate to braille this as (disregard line breaks):
! $ges ( ? polygon >e seg;ts ;;;,,,<ab>:1 <bc>:1 <cd>:1 <de>:1,';' & ;;<,,ea>:4
However, I suspect that the following transcription would be more intuitive to a lot of braille users. (disregard line breaks)
! $ges ( ? polygon >e seg;ts ;;;<,,ab>:1 <,,bc>:1 <,,cd>:1 <,,de>:1;' & ;;<,,ea>:4
What do you think? Does this help?
What a fun question about Duxbury. 🤓
I did notice something intriguing as I experimented with the first equation in your example under the heading "Recursive formula". If I added something that requires grade 1 mode close to the beginning of the symbols-sequence after the equals sign, then DBT will give us a grade 1 passage for the whole equation that you've enclosed in "ts" "te" codes (which give rise to the "math" character style). So, it looks like Duxbury's reasoning for using a grade 1 passage has something to do with how early on in the symbols-sequences grade 1 mode is called for.
So, I tricked DBT into thinking about that symbols-sequence after the equals as more than one symbols-sequence. (At least that's what I think I did.) I added a harmless code (xcs) after the r in the symbols-sequence "r, paren, a-sub-n-minus-one, paren"
Does that make sense?
I'm not sure that is a complete fix. Let's all keep tinkering with this.
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You are quite right that any fraction with a sign of omission *does not* qualify as a simple numeric fraction (GTM 6.1, also the Bulletin article "Fractions: What are their symbols and rules?," in the 2020 Fall edition).
Really, the only correct way to transcribe the fractions you've highlighted is using the UEB general fraction indicators and line (GTM 6.4). ( ) and ./
Maaaybe, for this specific student only, you could use the general fraction line and not the general fraction indicators?? This would be a one-student-only accommodation.
The most official "certification" that we know of is the letter of proficiency that comes from successfully completing the final test of CNIB course 1.3. More information about this is in the APH webinar "Navigation of Braille Certification".
Another "certification" is the certificates that you can purchase after completing each of the three math programs offered by UEB Online.
"Answer, part 2" is coming after I check with others in the field.
Answer, part 1: A list of resources for studying UEB, with a focus on math & science
UEB Math/Science (or "Technical Material in UEB") Resources 👩🏫
The APH webinar UEB Math Science: Frozen Juice Concentrate explains some principles that expand through all UEB Math/Science materials, and it is packed full of resources for reference and study. This webinar's handout is hosted on the Access Academy Handouts page.
Below are links to a variety of free resources for learning to use UEB to transcribe technical materials.
- Guidelines for Technical Material (2008 version updated August, 2014), available in PDF and BRF from ICEB's UEB page
- UEB Mathematics Program from UEBOnline
- Braille Course 1.3 UEB Technical, from CNIB (available in PDF and BRF). This is described in detail as part of the APH webinar Navigation of Braille Certification.
- UEB Math Tutorial online, from APH
- The Hitchhiker's Guide to UEB Maths, from BANZAT
- Unified English Braille for Math (For Sighted Learners), posted by the Philippine National School for the Blind
- Provisional Guidance for Transcribing Mathematics in UEB, from BANA
- UEB Training Modules, from Colorado DOE
The Primary Maths Cheat Sheet, from UEBOnline is one list of some UEB symbols used in technical materials.
The UKAAF created the document "Generating mathematical symbols using Math AutoCorrect or Unicode," which provides detailed instruction on inserting symbols in a document, especially in MS Word. The document is available in multiple formats from UKAAF's website, in the section on Braille Standards.
- This reply was modified 2 months ago by kdejute. Reason: adjusted language after copy/paste from internal web page
Then the tn suggested above will work. 👍🏻
Thank you for the question. Full disclosure, this is probably more of a Braille Formats question than a UEB Math/Science question.
Nonetheless, I'll go ahead and say that I like your proposed solution. Instead of repeating the same tn at the beginning of every blank-riddled table, a tn on the Transcriber's Notes Page saying something like, "In all tables, a series of guide dots across the width of a column indicates that an answer is to be inserted."
Before you implement that solution, we must ask: Are there any tables with a blank that's not meant to be filled with answers?