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Hello and thank you for your question!
I would definitely place the opening capitals passage indicator after the opening question mark for the following reason: Although not explicitly stated in the UEB section on capitalized passages, UEB 8.3.3 states “Only a modifier or a ligature indicator can be positioned between a letter and its capitals prefix.” By extension, I believe the capitals passage indicator must occur after the opening question mark and before the first capitalized letter: ⠢⠠⠠⠠⠙⠬⠝⠙⠑⠀
I don’t think there is a hard and fast rule about the terminator. UEB 8.6.2 says that “the capitals terminator may precede or follow punctuation and other terminators but it is best that indicators and paired characters … be nested”. The example in UEB 8.5.5 shows the capitals terminator in the last paragraph following the closing punctuation even though the capitals passage indicator occurs after the opening quotation mark. (This placement may just be because it’s a series of capitalized paragraphs so true nesting isn’t possible, but the code doesn’t explicitly state that). As a counter example, UEB 8.6.2 shows the capitals indicators nested within the opening and closing quotation marks in the first sample sentence.
While Duxbury’s treatment is technically correct, my preference would be to close the capitals before the closing question mark as follows:
Please let me know if you have any additional questions!
Thank you for your feedback!
Thank you, Kyle! A few follow-up questions accompanied by an attachment with examples:
1. If I use Nemeth when the functions and commands are interspersed with mathematical expressions, can you confirm that the words would be transcribed without contractions, and italics would be omitted because the italics are used throughout, similarly to the way italics for variable letters are omitted whether they are unmodified in UEB or within Nemeth code?
2. When commands appear embedded in explanatory text, and they are not in contact with mathematical expressions, can I stay in UEB and use contractions and UEB typeform indicators (for instance, “To define matrices and perform Gaussian elimination using Maple, first access the LinearAlgebra library using the command”)?
3. When the function names are all capitals (set NROW(i) = i.), would I just use the double capitalization indicator rather than capitalizing each letter? It does not seem like the individual letters have mathematical significance.
4. For alignment of the pseudo-programs listed in steps, would a nested list using as many levels of indention as there are in print, following the line breaks used print, be acceptable since it’s not exactly itemized mathematical material? In the attached, there are three vertically aligned equations under Step 5. Would you ignore the vertical alignment and just put the second and third lines in cell 5 (because it is a third level indent, with Step 5 being a second level and Step 2 being the first level)?
5. There is a symbol := that is sometimes spaced and sometimes unspaced (examples of each in the attached). There doesn’t appear to be a Nemeth code symbol for this. Would you use the literary colon followed by the spaced equals sign? or put the colon directly next to the equals sign?
Thanks much for your patience looking over this challenging textbook!
- This reply was modified 1 year, 1 month ago by rsherwood12.
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Foreign language textbooks certainly like to employ all kinds of typeforms to direct the attention of the reader, and as you’ve noticed, this can introduce a lot of clutter into the foreign language material.
In my response, I will refer to the material you’re inquiring about as a conjugation chart or verb chart (depending on what the textbook calls them), rather than a word list. The Vocabulario box on the right of the page is an example of what Braille Formats considers a foreign language word list, and the formatting of a word lists is covered by BF2016 section 17.7.
Braille Formats 5.1.2 states that font attributes that add meaning to the text must be retained. In this case, does the highlighting provide necessary information in all places it is used? In my opinion, in the explanatory text, the highlighting does have meaning or the teacher may refer to the different colors of highlighting. However, in the verb chart, it is self-evident which words are spelled with “ue” and which with “u”. Adding highlighting to the letters “ue” and “u” does not add useful information and may interfere with the reader’s ability to read the word in its normal form. When changes are made to the print format, it is never wrong to add an explanatory transcriber’s note. For instance, “In the following verb chart, green highlighting on the letter “u” and orange highlighting on the letters “ue” have been omitted.”
The bold within the words in the verb chart does hold information which is not explained in the surrounding text (it separates the stem from the ending of each form of the verb), so I would recommending retaining the bold.
If you felt the highlighting within the verb chart did help the reader by establishing the pattern of spelling changes, you could follow BF5.8 (and example 5-16). This gives the transcriber the option of showing the material twice: once without indicators and then again with indicators using a transcriber’s note to alert the reader of the format. I think the way you have brailled the chart in your sample might be one solution (provided you place the words with the typeform indicators in the runover position for the column). A possible TN would be: “In the following verb chart, the words are shown first without emphasis and then repeated with all indicators used.” Theoretically, you could show the entire chart twice, once without the indicators and once with them in order to avoid having runovers within the chart.
For the phrase jugar a + sport, I would suggest placing this in cell 3-5 as displayed text separated from the surrounding text by blank lines. This format would allow you to omit the boldface because the shift in language is indicated by the change in margins and blank lines. The green highlighting on “a” as well as the green font and italics on the word “sport” are significant and would be retained:
For the section with sentence/translation pairs at the bottom of the sample, “Ignacio asks Roberto:” and “Coach Castillo asks:” are part of the paragraph above and should be placed in 1-1. The Spanish and English sentences would be treated as displayed material because they are set off from the surrounding text by blank lines and by a change of print margin. I would place them in 3-7, 5-7 as you have them, just with the addition of blank lines above and below.
Please let me know if you have any further questions.
Correct. Because it is added by the transcriber, The End would also be written in contracted English enclosed in transcriber’s note indicators.
Thank you so much for the interesting question and the print and braille samples. I am running it by my committee now and will respond as soon as possible.
Thank you for attaching the print sample. I would recommend following print and retaining the superscript position. See Samples 13-8 and 16-6 in BF2016 which demonstrate that the superscript position of the reference mark is indicated in both the text and preceding the note because print shows it as superscript in both places.
Are you familiar with the formatting for gloss notes such as these which introduce new foreign language vocabulary (BF2016 section 16.6 Gloss Notes in Foreign Language Texts)? In foreign language materials, such notes are placed on the braille line following the words they explain, starting in cell 7 with runovers in cell 5. The foreign language article in the Spring 2018 Bulletin covers gloss notes in more detail.
Please let me know if you would like clarification on gloss notes or have any other questions.
Hello and thank you for your question.
Text inserted by the transcriber is written in contracted English. The transcriber’s note indicators alert the reader to the shift in language so there is no confusion with contractions and foreign alphabet signs. The word “Picture” or even a longer transcriber’s note explaining a format to the student will be in contracted English.
One reason for using contracted English in TNs is that the transcriber may not necessarily be fluent in the language, so mistakes that inhibit the students’ learning could be introduced.
Another reason is that because the transcriber is in an English-speaking country, it is likely that the primary language of the reader is English and that they are learning Spanish. Even though they are at an advanced level, they may not understand all the vocabulary used in a foreign language transcriber’s note and be at a disadvantage in using the book.
I did not see your question in the Math and Science forum, so I am posting the feedback I received from a knowledgeable Nemeth transcriber:
—–Putting aside for a moment what we should do in the braille transcription, I want to suggest a reason why the Spanish word “o” meaning “or” is carrying an accent in this glossary entry. I believe the reasoning is the same as that for using an accented o between numbers. To explain that, I will translate a quote from the Spanish language Wikipedia entry on accents in Spanish:
“La o entre números en ningún caso debe tildarse. Anteriormente se tildaba cuando estaba entre números para no confundirla con el cero, pero actualmente se considera que el riesgo de confusión es mínimo y se escribe 1 o 3, 52 o 26, por ejemplo. Recuérdese que ante un número cuyo nombre empieza por o se convierte en u, como en 79 u 80 (setenta y nueve u ochenta).”
“An o between numbers should under no circumstances be accented. In the past an accent was used when it was between numbers in order to avoid confusion with the zero, but nowadays we believe that the risk of confusion is minimal and we write 1 o 3, 52 o 26, for example. Remember that before a number whose name begins with an o we convert to a u, as in 79 u 80 (setenta y nueve u ochenta).”Personally, I think the most reader-friendly transcription would thus be one that ignores the acute accent on the Spanish word o. I suppose a transcriber’s note should be used to explain that the printed ó has been transcribed as o in braille.—–I hope that explanation is helpful to you in transcribing this glossary.Best,RebeccaMarch 13, 2018 at 3:00 pm in reply to: Fonts other than italics in Spanish "World Braille Transcription" #30588
Great question. The short answer is that I would recommend using World Braille Usage (WBU) only for the accented characters in the alphabet and UEB for any other signs such as punctuation marks (including the UEB inverted exclamation and question marks), typeface (italic, bold underlining), etc. You do not want to mix the Spanish italics with the UEB bold, underlining, etc.
The reasoning for this recommendation: According to UEB 13.6.4 under Using Foreign Code signs, when you are using the foreign language alphabet for letters and accented letters, it is “permissible though not required to use the foreign code signs” for any other elements of the language. Also, Method 3 in the Provisional Guidance for Transcribing Foreign Language Material in UEB states that foreign language signs for accented letters are used for the foreign text, but all other signs including punctuation and font/emphasis indicators may be in UEB.
None of the guidance available to us at this time states that you are required to use either UEB or WBU for punctuation and typeface, so as long as you are consistent within your transcription, and the reader is expected to be familiar with the signs you use, you are allowed to use the Spanish punctuation and italics signs from WBU. However, because WBU lists the emphasis indicators found in other language but does not tell you how to use them (and Spanish is different than UEB), I would still follow UEB for italics, bold, etc.
I hope that clarifies. Please let me know if you have any other questions.
Thank you for your patience, Michael. I am not familiar with transcribing Spanish and Nemeth together. I have asked a few knowledgeable people but am awaiting responses. You might receive a more prompt response if you also post your question in the Mathematics, Science and Computer Notation forum.
I will update this post if I hear back with answers.
The method you describe for the actual glossary entries sounds correct: uncontracted braille for the foreign language entry words and appropriate accented letters for the foreign language (BF21.6.3.b and c). This is currently called Method 3 in the Provisional Guidance for Transcribing Foreign Language Material in UEB, though the specific name/method number may change when the Guidance document is finalized.
I would like to clarify that Sample 20-4 in Braille Formats is NOT actually in Method 1. It is simply an English pronunciation key. There are no foreign or anglicized words, and the letters with diacritical marks are not foreign; they are UEB symbols. It is still the appropriate example to follow for the English portion of your pronunciation key, because the words in most of your key are English.
For the Sounds in Foreign Words section, the Symbol column would use UEB for the pronunciation symbols, as with the rest of the key. For the words in the Examples column, I recommend using uncontracted braille and the appropriate foreign language symbols for the accented characters (“Method 3”), since they will appear this way if/when the reader encounters them in the body of the text. The German o-umlaut ⠪ and u-umlaut ⠳ (found in World Braille Usage, p. 182) would be listed on the Special Symbols page.
I hope that helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.
Thank you for the question. I am running it by my committee, and I’ll get back to you as soon as possible.
Since there are currently no published guidelines on Latin, NBA is recommending that transcribers use the UEB modifier (UEB 4.2) for “macron above following letter” ⠈⠤ (dots 4, 36). In addition, we are recommending that the Latin text be uncontracted and all punctuation signs be in UEB.
Here is an example from the Winter 2016 Bulletin article on Latin. I have underlined the macron symbol in the braille:
Scintilla est fēmina Rōmāna; in casā labōrat.
Please let me know if you have any further questions.
Thank you very much for your question and the print. You are correct in looking for the symbol in UEB 4.2 Modifiers since this is simply a foreign name appearing in an English context. In this instance, I would advise you to use the first transcriber-defined modifier ⠘⠸⠂ placed before the letter and list it on the Special Symbols page as “double acute accent above following letter” because as you noted, it is not one of the modifiers provided for in the list.
The name, in uncontracted UEB, would be transcribed as follows:
Please let me know if you have any other questions.